It said a 30-year-old German-Iranian man identified as Iman J.L. and 54-year-old Iranian citizen Davood A. were suspected of having contravened the law on foreign trade.
They allegedly exported to Iran 61 aircraft engines for use in unmanned robotic drones without official permission between October 2008 and September 2009, the prosecutor said in a statement.
It said the exported engines were "suitable for operating the 'Ababil-3' type drone which are used by the Iranian armed forces as target simulation-, reconnaissance- and combat drones".
The exports were falsely declared to get around German customs, the federal prosecutor said.