Iran is geographically located in an arid and semi-arid region, and in recent years the issue of wetlands, lakes and the resulting dust has been considered by environmental scientists. The country’s environmental problems are numerous. Iran is most at risk from this dust. Almost all of Iran’s major wetlands have either dried up or are drying up.
Productivity and use of basic resources are low in Iran. Water, soil, and energy resources are not used properly, and this leads to environmental pollution in the field of air, water, and soil.
The country faces serious challenges in the field of water quantity. This year, Iran is facing the phenomenon of dust. Many of the country’s rivers and wetlands have dried up due to misuse and overuse.
In addition, Iran’s biodiversity and ecology face many problems and cause the origin of dust in the country. In addition to environmental damage, this phenomenon has many consequences in the field of health, economy, etc.
The area of very critical dust centers in Iran is about 2 million hectares. In addition, the total area of dust centers in the country has reached 35 million hectares. Over the past three years, the government has allocated a total of €450 million to the National Dust Management Headquarters to address the dust problem, without any appropriate result.
On the other hand, the area of external dust hotspots is 350 million hectares, which is adding to the dust crisis of Iran. Notable that a country which has no good political relation with its neighbor countries is not capable to lead an effective plan to eradicate this external crisis.
The Iranian Space Agency has estimated the change in water level of 10 wetlands and lakes in the country using satellite data, during which, except for the complete dryness of the three wetlands of Hamoon, Arjan and Bakhtegan, it is known that the surface of all wetlands and lakes except wetlands Gavkhoni and Choghakhor are decreasing compared to the same month in 2020.
Salehieh wetland in Alborz province, Miankaleh wetland in Mazandaran, Parishan, Arjan, Maharloo, Tasht and Bakhtegan wetlands in Fars province and Hamoon wetland in Sistan and Baluchistan province are among them.
One of the most risked places in Iran is the capital Tehran. Some 90% of Salehieh and Allahabad wetlands in the south of Tehran have dried up. The drying up of these wetlands has become a source of dust for the city of Tehran and can be a great threat to the city and aggravate the problem of weather in Tehran.
Gavkhoni International Wetland is located 167 km southeast of Isfahan province and in the lowest part of Zayandehrood river and it feeds from this river. But it has been struggling with water and drought problems for some time, which according to environmental activists, this wetland is closer to premature death. This wetland is one of the most beautiful wetlands in the country in terms of valuation, and it has been registered in the Ramsar Convention in the past. Today it is one of the 22 international wetlands in the world.
Gavkhoni, as one of the most important wetlands in the country, has been suffering from drought for some time, and such a problem can certainly affect the central cities and even Tehran with its dust. Unfortunately, the last water that entered the lagoon was in 2006.
To date, the environmental water rights of Gavkhoni have not been fully granted. The estimated water fee is 176 million cubic meters per year, of which up to 20% of this fee has been delivered so far, and it was a flood and was not needed for agriculture. For this reason, water supply to the upper sections of the lagoon is very difficult.